Decision: Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil

In the first maternal death case to be decided by an international human rights body, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) establishes that governments have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women in their countries—regardless of income or racial background—have access to timely, non-discriminatory, and appropriate maternal health services.  Even when governments outsource health services to private institutions, they remain directly responsible for their actions and have a duty to regulate and monitor said institutions.